LIAQUAT MEDICAL RESEARCH JOURNAL <p>Liaquat Medical Research Journal (LMRJ) is a Gold Openaccess Journal, publishes basic, clinical and para-clinical aspects of medical sciences including Anatomy, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Physiology, Pharmacology, Parasitology, Hematology, Microbiology, Radiotherapy, Radiobiology, Medical Imaging, Medical Informatics, Medical Physics, Nutrition, Virology, and any animal experimental studies in the form of original articles, reviews and case reports.</p> Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences en-US LIAQUAT MEDICAL RESEARCH JOURNAL 2664-5734 <p>Copyright: Open access journal copyright lies with authors and protected under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence (</p> Phytochemicals and therapeutic use of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) – A narrative review <p>This article provides a summary of phytochemical composition, nutritional value and health benefits of Pheonix Dactylifera L, commonly known as dates. Additionally, the article explores the potential of date fruit to be utilized as a food medicine in the treatment of various human diseases. We conducted a comprehensive review of the existing literature on the biological functions of date palm and its potential health benefits, utilizing databases literature search engines including PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and google scholar. Regular consumption of date palm fruits (DPFs) may lower the risk of developing various chronic diseases due to its antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial, anticancer and anti-mutagenic properties. Additionally, the pollen of date palm trees contains high levels of protein, fat, and carbohydrates, making it an excellent natural supplement with substantial nutritional value and energy-boosting properties. Date palm components have demonstrated potent antioxidant effects and have played a crucial role in both male and female reproductive systems, promoting fertility in both genders. Date palm pollen (DPP) has shown gonadal-stimulating potency in females and can significantly increase testosterone levels in individuals with Oligoasthenozoospermia and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in patients with Azoospermia, making it as a potential treatment for reproductive health. According to the literature, date fruit is a highly nutritious fruit compared to other commonly consumed fruits. In conclusion dates have been shown to have a significant impact on various female reproductive parameters such as oogenesis, oocyte development, hormone modulation, and pregnancy strength.</p> Marvi Shaikh Naseem Aslam Channa Sadia Qamar Arain Nayab Magsi Fawad Mahesar Mehnaz Shaikh Mubina Laghari Kamran Khichi Copyright (c) 2023 Marvi Shaikh, Naseem Aslam Channa, Sadia Qamar Arain, Nayab Magsi, Fawad Mahesar, Mehnaz Shaikh, Mubina Laghari, Kamran Khichi 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 5 03 10.38106/LMRJ.2023.5.3-08 Effectiveness of simulation in nursing education- A narrative review of literature <p>Nursing is the fastest-growing career now a days. To be able to work effectively as a nurse after completing training, receiving quality nursing education is the most important factor. Currently, the most effective teaching strategy and method for imparting theoretical knowledge and abilities in the nursing field is simulation. The objective of this literature review is to examine and provide current research on this subject. Literature review was carried out related to the concern derived from Google Scholar, PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest, Nursing Journal and science direct. It included studies published in English, consuming the following keywords: Simulation, Simulation based education, Nursing, Nursing education. Learning by using simulations allows students to practice in a controlled environment without any fear of harming humanbeings. This will enhance their problem solving skills in clinical practice. Practicing in such protected environment and the sense of safety boost students’ self-esteem and self-confidence. This may help in reducing the gap between practice and clinical experience on patients.</p> Saira Lalani Copyright (c) 2023 Saira Lalani 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 5 03 10.38106/LMRJ.2023.5.3-09 Assessment of anti-malarial potential of Allium Sativum against plasmodium vivax <p>Malaria is a vector-borne protozoal disease, caused by genus Plasmodium, where female anopheles’ mosquito works as a vector to transfer malarial parasite. The disease has been reported to be endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Since drug resistance of the Plasmodium species and economic burden of the disease are the major concerns associated with malaria. Thus, most of the world’s population is focusing on the utilization of medicinal plants as the natural treatment for several diseases including malaria. There is limited published data available regarding anti-malarial activity of Allium sativum against Plasmodium vivax. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the in-vitro anti-malarial activity of Allium sativum methanolic extract. The methanolic extract of Allium sativum showed significant anti-plasmodial activity (80.57%) at 0.2 mg/ml highest tested dose after 24h. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of Flavonoids, Vinyldithiins, Ajoenes, Alliin and Allicin in the Allium sativum methanolic extract. Among the phytochemicals, only Allicin at the highest tested dose (0.2mg/ml) showed the inhibition (59.75%) of P. vivax inhibition. Allium sativum methanolic extract exhibits anti-plasmodial activities in-vitro. However, further studies are required to assess the in-vivo anti-plasmodial activity of Allium sativum methanolic extract against plasmodium vivax in future.</p> Fahim Ullah Khan Laiq Zaman Zaman Autif Hussain Mangi Mangi Mir Sadiq Shah Shah Saira Abbas Jamil Ur Rehman Zaib Un Nisa Zahid Rehman Batab Khan Ishfaq Ahmad Khalid Wahab Maria Niazi Sabqat Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 Dr. Fahim Ullah Khan, Laiq Zaman Zaman, Autif Hussain Mangi Mangi, Mir Sadiq Shah Shah, Saira Abbas, Jamil Ur Rehman, Zaib Un Nisa, Zahid Rehman, Batab Khan, Ishfaq Ahmad, Khalid Wahab, Maria Niazi, Sabqat Ullah 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 5 03 10.38106/LMRJ.2023.5.3-02 Evaluation of risk factors and clinical outcomes of acute respiratory failure from post renal transplant recipients: A five-year data of a single center <p>Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF) requiring Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission is a common complication following renal transplant and is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. This study aimed to evaluate etiological factors and clinical outcomes of ARF following a renal transplant. This was a retrospective observational study. Data was recruited from last five –years’ records of Renal Transplant Unit of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. Patients who developed ARF after renal transplantation whether requiring hospitalization (both in ICU or in ward) were included and their severity, etiologic diagnosis, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. During past five years (June 2017 till June 2023) a total of 450 kidney allografts were done and 35 patients (7.8%) developed ARF. Out of which 15 patients were shifted to the ICU. Mortality of female patients was higher as compared to males (26.1% versus 20.4%). Hypertension was found to be the most common comorbidity whereas glomerulonephritis was the most common cause of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD).</p> <p>Acute rejection was observed in 20.89% (n = 94) of recipients. Bacterial pneumonia was the most common cause of ARF, one patient needed on mechanical ventilation whereas two patients were dialysis dependent survivors. ARF following renal transplant is associated with higher mortality and loss of graft function because of compromised immunity. Anti-bacterial prophylaxis and early intensive management appears to help in improving the outcome while integrating the graft function.</p> Muhammad Tassaduq Khan Rashid Bin Hamid Naranjan Lal Tooba Noor Sidrah Rashid Beenish Hameed Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Tassaduq Khan, Rashid Bin Khan, Naranjan Lal, Tooba Noor, Sidrah Rashid, Beenish Hameed 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 5 03 10.38106/LMRJ.2023.5.3-03 Prescribing trends of amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, and moxifloxacin across different districts of Karachi, Pakistan <p>Antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern worldwide due to misuse and overuse of antibiotics. This study aimed to evaluate the dispensing trends of three frequently prescribed antibiotics including Amoxicillin, Ceftriaxone, and Moxifloxacin in various districts of Karachi. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire distributed in pharmacies across different districts of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed to determine the dispensing trend of these three antibiotics. The results indicated that Amoxicillin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic, followed by Ceftriaxone and then Moxifloxacin. District-wise analysis showed that Amoxicillin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic in the south district. The frequent prescribing of these antibiotics has contributed to the antibiotic resistance. This study highlights the need for interventions to ensure rational prescribing practices so that antibiotic resistance can be prevented.</p> Salman Ashfaq Ahmad Nighat Razvi Salman Ahmed Fatima Rehman Azfar Athar Ishaqui Sumera Imran Muhammad Imran Javeria Farooq Abdul Rahman Ahmed Muhammad Shaikh Shayan Ahmed Zeeshan Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Salman Ashfaq Ahmad, Nighat Razvi, Salman Ahmed, Fatima Rehman, Azfar Athar Ishaqui, Sumera Imran , Muhammad Imran, Javeria Farooq, Abdul Rahman, Ahmed Muhammad Shaikh, Shayan Ahmed, Zeeshan Ahmed 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 5 03 10.38106/LMRJ.2023.5.3-04 Renal vascular disparities among kidney donors presented at renal transplant unit- A single centre study <p>Renal vasculature has been reported to show anatomical variations, which may lead to surgical complications. The pattern of renal vascular variations in Pakistani population is not well reported. Thus, this study was designed to assess the renal vascularity among kidney donors and correlate with age, gender and site of vessels. A total of 223 healthy volunteers underwent evaluation for kidney donation at the Radiology Department, DOW University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from January 2020 to July 2022 were included. The assessment of renal vasculature was done on computed (CT) angiogram. Renal vascular variations were found in 112 (50.2%), 59.8% were seen in males and 40.2% in females. On right side 50% vascular anomalies were found followed by left side with 27% and 22% on both sides. The arterial variants included accessory renal artery seen in 76 (67.8%) individuals, out of which 13.2% had in upper polar, 26.3% in hilum, 36.8% in lower polar, while 23.7% of early branching was observed. Ten retro-aortic, fourteen accessory renal veins and six bifurcation renal veins, along with six early branching renal veins, were present. Patient who received donor nephrectomy, the outcomes of the operation were completely consistent with the results of the CTA. According to this study, Pakistani population have differences in their renal venous and arterial anatomy, which can significantly influence surgical procedures.</p> Naranjan Lal Rashid Bin Hamid Muhammad Tassaduq Khan Laraib Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Naranjan Lal, Rashid Bin Hamid, Muhammad Tassaduq Khan, Laraib Khan 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 5 03 10.38106/LMRJ.2023.5.3-05 Depression in young women after hysterectomy: Emergency obstetric versus elective procedure – A comparative cross-sectional study <p>Emergency obstetric hysterectomy (EOH) is done during cesarean section or after normal vaginal delivery, or any time during puerperal period. Puerperal period is usually associated with anxiety and depression in most cases, having emergency hysterectomy can potentially trigger it more. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare emergency versus elective hysterectomy to determine the pattern of depression between two groups. During a period of four years (from 1st march 2019 to 28th February 2023), a total of 6658 patients were admitted in obstetrics &amp; gynecology department and 31 underwent emergency obstetric hysterectomies and consented to be part of this study. These females were aged between 18 to 49 years. For comparison 31 married control females were randomly selected and interviewed 3 months after undergoing elective hysterectomy due to gynecological conditions. There was no past family history for any psychiatric illness in both groups. The studied groups were clinically evaluated for major depressive episode according to the American Psychiatric Association diagnostic and statistical Manual of mental disorders, 4th edition text revised (DSM-IV TR) criteria. Beck depression inventory (BDI)18 to assess the severity of major depressive episodes. Out of 31 patients 16 cases were performed after caesarean section, four during laparotomy for ruptured uterus and 11 for uterine atony after normal vaginal delivery. There was significantly higher rate of depression among patients undergoing emergency hysterectomy as compared to those with elective procedure. The frequency of complications was also observed to be higher in emergency cases. Our study concluded that the frequency of complications and severe depression was remarkably higher in the obstetric emergency hysterectomy group as compared to the elective hysterectomy group.</p> Zahida Parveen Brohi Uzma Parveen Roohi Ujjan Aneela Brohi Afshan Mahesar Copyright (c) 2023 Zahida Parveen Brohi, Uzma Parveen, Roohi Nigar, Aneela Sadaf , Afshan Zia 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 5 03 10.38106/LMRJ.2023.5.3-06 Effect of anti-epileptic drugs on serum lipids in epileptic patients- A case-control study <p>Epilepsy is a chronic illness, thus antiepileptic drugs are often used extensively. However, this treatment may be linked to metabolic abnormalities in different body systems, including the endocrine system, connective tissues, and liver. Moreover, prolonged use of antiepileptic drugs may lead to adverse effects on serum lipid levels. This study was conducted to explore alterations in serum lipids after the administration of antiepileptic drugs in epileptic patients and compared with healthy volunteers. A total of 200 participants were selected; including 100 epileptic patients and 100 age, gender and locality matched controls having negative personal or family history of epilepsy. All the participants signed written informed consent and were interviewed through a standard questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from all participants, for the analysis of serum lipids. The accurate rapid test used to analyze samples of both groups. Significantly increased concentration of total lipids, total cholesterol, triglyceride and VLDL-C were found in epileptic patients as compared to controls and also in male epileptic patients, whereas, reverse was true for HDL-C. Significant variations were found for total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL, triglycerides and VLDL-C in epileptic patients with age group 36 to 46 years, while, the HDL-C was significantly decreased in age group 15 to 35 years. Antiepileptic drugs, especially Episenta alters the serum lipid contents, but the total cholesterol was significantly altered among the users of antiepileptic drugs.</p> Ghulam mujtaba junejo Naseem Aslam Channa Kamran Khichi Marvi Shaikh Lubna Noorani Copyright (c) 2023 Ghulam mujtaba junejo, Naseem Aslam Channa, Kamran Khichi, Marvi Shaikh, Lubna Noorani 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 5 03 10.38106/LMRJ.2023.5.3-07 Post-tuberculous meningitis hydrocephalous- A case report <p>Mycobacterium tuberculous bacteria infect host lungs while inhaling them from the external environment, causing a localized infection with a potential to spread to local lymph nodes. The bacilli have the property to disseminate to other organs including Central Nervous System (CNS) and lead to tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The bacilli may develop tiny sub-pial or sub-ependymal rich foci. These rich foci get larger as the illness worsens and may finally burst into the sub-arachnoid region, causing meningitis. Tuberculous meningitis is linked to a high mortality rate. The majority of TBM patients who survive have long term neurological disabilities. This case was presented to Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan and the patient has taken Leave Against Medical Advice twice due to financial crises.</p> Kashif Khan Kashif Khan Muhammad Nasir Shenila Shamsuddin Copyright (c) 2023 Kashif Khan Kashif Khan, Muhammad Nasir, Shenila Shamsuddin 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 5 03 10.38106/LMRJ.2023.5.3-10 Translational research: The need of time <p>Translational research, is an innovative and multidisciplinary approach to bring laboratory findings into clinical practice or explain clinical findings in the laboratory settings. This primarily bridges the gap between basic scientific research and the clinical applications. It focuses on transforming discoveries made in the laboratory into practical applications to improve human health. For a number of decades most of the research funds were utilized for basic research thus a lot of knowledge is produced without clinical application. Thus it’s now time to focus on translational work so that all the knowledge produce should have practical applications. This may give new diagnostic tests, identifies novel therapeutic targets planting a seed for development of new therapeutic molecules. This editorial presents a brief of the reasons to focus on translational research in countries like Pakistan. </p> Binafsha Syed Copyright (c) 2023 Binafsha Syed 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 5 03 10.38106/LMRJ.2023.5.3-01