LIAQUAT MEDICAL RESEARCH JOURNAL 2024-07-02T14:15:53+05:00 Dr. Binafsha Manzoor Syed Open Journal Systems <p>Liaquat Medical Research Journal (LMRJ) is a Gold Openaccess Journal, publishes basic, clinical and para-clinical aspects of medical sciences including Anatomy, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Physiology, Pharmacology, Parasitology, Hematology, Microbiology, Radiotherapy, Radiobiology, Medical Imaging, Medical Informatics, Medical Physics, Nutrition, Virology, and any animal experimental studies in the form of original articles, reviews and case reports.</p> The Ethics of AI in Medical Research: A Call for Open and Honest Discussion 2024-02-26T20:49:35+05:00 Shazma Tahseen Muhammad Ali Memon Shah Muhammad Kamran Kamran Taj Pathan <p>Artificial intelligence (AI) in healthcare is gaining rapid popularity in terms of its application and research. A significant reason for its success is due to the advances it has made and the ease of use it incorporates. Because of its implications, issues, and benefits in terms of ease, AI has been debated and researched extensively. This study examined the ethical dilemmas associated with artificial intelligence in medical research. The research uses a qualitative research method based on content analysis. Authentic Internet resources were used to collect secondary data. Once AI is fully integrated into healthcare, several ethical dilemmas will likely arise, including patient privacy, data security, algorithmically biased results, transparency, and human error. Minimizing ethical dilemmas with continuous monitoring is possible, but they cannot be eliminated. It is possible with the advancement of technology and AI enables it to imitate the cognitive processes of humans, which may enhance its reliability but can also lead to negative consequences. As a result, the new technological developments must be applied ethically. An open and honest discussion is essential for the awareness and understanding of AI ethics, honoring patient rights, and maintaining public trust.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 shazma, Muhammad Ali Memon, Shah Muhammad Kamran, Kamran Taj Pathan Prevention of central venous line associated bloodstream infections- A literature review 2024-06-11T18:45:34+05:00 Kashif Khan Tariq Ali <p>Hospital-acquired infections, particularly Central Venous Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSIs), are a noteworthy concern in intensive care units (ICUs). CLABSIs not only extend hospital stays but also increase healthcare costs and pose serious threats to patients' well-being. This narrative literature review explores the evidence-based strategies for the prevention of CLABSIs in critical care settings. It emphasizes the importance of proper infection control measures, such as hand hygiene, maximal barrier precautions, and chlorhexidine skin preparation, to reduce the risk of infection. The choice of catheter insertion site, duration of catheter use, and nurse-patient ratios are also discussed as crucial factors in CLABSI prevention. Additionally, post-insertion care, including daily bathing with chlorhexidine, catheter patency maintenance, and dressing changes, is highlighted. The review underscores the need for healthcare workers to adhere to best practices and guidelines to minimize CLABSI rates, ultimately enhancing patient safety and reducing healthcare burdens. The findings emphasize the significance of informed practices in preventing CLABSIs and the potential for improved patient outcomes with their implementation.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Kashif Khan, Tariq Ali Cancer survivorship in low-middle income countries - Does quality of life matter? 2024-07-02T14:15:53+05:00 Binafsha Manzoor Syed <p>Cancer survivorship has improved in the recent years due to screening facilities, modernized treatment options and advanced cancer care in specialized centers globally. However, in low-middle-income countries cancer survivorship is not yet improved to that stature. There are multifaceted issues including delay in diagnosis, financial burden and in certain situations in appropriate treatment creates long term effects not only on patients but also on their families. Multidisciplinary approach is a limitation in the LMIC and the mental health aspects are least studies in cancer survivors. Therefore, a revised more focused and evidence based management plan along with long term quality of life issues needs to be focused in patients from LMIC. </p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Binafsha Syed The assessment of aristida adscensionis and rumex hypogaeus comparative and combine antioxidant potential 2024-06-06T14:15:47+05:00 Dr Fahim Ullah Khan Maria Niazi Surayia Shahab Rani Khadija Khattak Khalid Wahab Zia UD Din Osama Alam Autif Hussain Mangi Muhammad Reyan Tariq Rahim Zakim Ullah Israr Ahmad <p>Exogenous substances and cellular metabolism both produce free radicals in cells. The produced free radicals react with cell biomolecules, including DNA. The ensuing destruction of DNA, also known as oxidative DNA damage, which is connected to aging, carcinogenesis, and mutagenesis. The <em>Aristida adscensionis</em> plays an essential role in the modulation of free radicals. We examined the antioxidant therapy of individual or combined forms of the <em>Aristida adscensionis</em> and <em>Rumex hypogaeus</em> plant extracts. We noticed that <em>Aristida adscensionis</em> showed scavenging activity at various concentrations i.e. 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 ?g/ml was 42%, 50%, 62%, 69% and 75% respectively. The scavenging activity of <em>Rumex hypogaeus</em> at various concentrations was 43%, 52%, 58%, 66% and 75% against the standard of ascorbic acid. We noticed that the combined mixture of both plant extracts elucidated a significant antioxidant potential at different concentrations of 100 ?g/ml, 500 ?g/ml, and 1000 ?g/ml which were 58%, 70%, 74%, 81% and 86 %. Our research study demonstrates that combinaion of both plants' extract mixtures had a more substantial antioxidant capacity than each extract individually. This property of these plants can be used for cancer treatment, however further robust data is required.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Dr Fahim Ullah Khan, Maria Niazi, Surayia Shahab Rani, Khadija Khattak, Khalid Wahab, Zia UD Din, Osama Alam, Autif Hussain Mangi, Muhammad Reyan, Tariq Rahim, Zakim Ullah, Israr Ahmad Quantitative analysis of malignant brain tumor on MRI images 2024-06-13T13:34:07+05:00 Imran Majeed Khan Abdul Rahman <p>Longitudinal relaxation time (T1)- weighted, Transverse relaxation time (T2)- weighted and flair Magetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequences are used for the study of high grade malignant brain tumors and their surrounding edemas. This study aimed to examine the characteristic of MRI on malignant brain tumor and to evaluate the benefits of Flair and T2 (Transverse relaxation time) -weighted over the T1(Longitudinal relaxation time) -weighted sequence. A total of 25 patients of malignant brain tumors were selected for analysis including 16 women aged 1 to 75 (mean age, 38.31 years) and 9 men aged 1 to 75 (mean age, 19.5 years). All patients had the T1- weighted, T2- weighted and Flair MRI sequences. A Region based segmentation of MATLAB software was performed on each type of tumor and 3D volume was calculated by spheroid volume tool of MATLAB. For all the patients tumor volume was calculated in cubic millimeter and compared with other sequences.The Flair and T2- weighted images volumes were significantly larger than the T1 – weighted image volume. There was also statistical difference of volume occurred in MRI sequences. T2- weighted and Flair MRI sequences showed 100% more volume than T1- weighted in the age group between 51 to 75 years. Similarly, both T2-weighted and Flair MRI sequence showed 61% volume more than T1-weighted in the age groups betrwen 26 to 75 years. Our findings suggest that the volume produced by these techniques are distinct and not interchangeable. Flair and T2-weighted images proved efficient for the measurement of abnormal tissues and CSF fluid in the brain. On the other hand T1-weighted images efficiently locate the tumor in fat and white matter of the brain. </p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Imran Majeed Khan, Abdul Rahman Emergency obstetrical hysterectomy among post-partum hemorrhage women in Larkana 2024-06-09T11:42:29+05:00 Majida Ali Mawish Memon Beenish Ghafar Mahak Memon Shazia Shaikh Fozia Chandio <p>Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), is an excessive bleeding after giving birth, it is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity around the world. In the current era of obstetrics, emergency obstetric hysterectomy (EOH) is still a crucial treatment that can save lives. This study was designed to determine causes, frequency, complications of emergency cesarean /obstetrical hysterectomy in Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in tertiary care hospital. All the patients gave birth during 4 years (i.e. 1January 2020- 31 December 2023) were included in this study. The obstetrical patients admitted were 13532, out of which 154 underwent emergency hysterectomy. Their biodata, sign and symptoms, diagnosis, fluid/blood transfusion, morbidity, operative intervention, maternal mortality, and follow up were taken on a proforma. The data thus taken was compiled and analyzed. The incidence of EOH was 11.4/1000 obstetrical cases, mostly (85.5%) were referral from elsewhere, while 20 (13.79%) were registered as booked who took proper antenatal care. Multipara (94%) was predominantly reported with post-partum hemorrhage (n=79, 51.29%). The maternal mortality was 15.59% (n= 19). Regular and scheduled antenatal care, early diagnosis, early referral, timely decision, blood transfusion with arrangement of surgery by an experienced obstetrician are crucial to justify EOH.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Majida Ali, Mawish Memon, Beenish Ghafar, Mahak Memon, Shazia Shaikh, Fozia Chandio Fozia Chandio Frequency of Autism in Nuclear and Joint family system 2024-05-03T11:58:28+05:00 Hamza Fayyaz Azam Khan Hina Samee ullah Farah Khursheed Saba Aziz Mamona Riaz <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Autism, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects social interaction, communication, and behavior. Autism is a lifelong developmental condition that affects individual’s communication and interaction with others, as well as their understanding of the world. There is limited literature available from Pakistan, therefore this study was designed to find the frequency of autism in nuclear and joint family systems. This was a Cross-sectional observational study conducted in various healthcare settings, including the University of Lahore Teaching Hospital, Mayo Hospital, Orion Center, and Sehat Medical Complex, Pakistan from February 2023 to July 2023. Purposive sampling was the method of sampling used in this investigation (n=133). Parents or caregivers who have a minimum of one ASD-diagnosed child were included in this study. Parents or caregivers who do not have a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were excluded from this study. The investigation into the frequency of autism within joint and nuclear families’ reveals that a majority of families with autistic children lean towards nuclear family structures. While joint families exist, they are less prevalent. The study also underlines that parental engagement is high across both family types, with over 90% actively participating in caregiving and decision-making.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Hamza Fayyaz, Azam Khan, Hina Samee ullah, Farah Khursheed, Saba Aziz, Mamona Riaz Knowledge, myths and acceptability of covid-19 vaccination among expectant women attending out- patient department of the private and public sector hospitals 2024-05-13T10:12:13+05:00 Dr. Zahida Parveen brohi Uzma Parveen Brohi Aneela Sadaf Brohi Roohi Nigar Ujjan Ifat Baloch <p>This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore pregnant women's knowledge, attitudes, and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccination. A total of 237 pregnant women were included from January 2021 till December 2021. After enrolment in the hospitals and before antenatal checkup all patients sent for COVID-19 vaccinations, those who had reservations regarding vaccination in pregnancy and willing to participate and share their knowledge were included. Data was collected using a pre-designed structured proforma. There were 84 pregnant women (35.4%) from rural residences, 67.1% with middle socioeconomic status, 84.8% were literate, 83.5% with 1 -3 antenatal visits, 46.8% with 21 – 26 weeks of gestational age, the mean gestational age of samples was 21.7 weeks. The source of information regarding hazards of COVID vaccine during pregnancy, there were 35 (44.3%) reported family, 24 (30.4%) reported friends, 15 (19%) reported healthcare providers and 5 (6.3%) reported media as the main source of information regarding hazards of COVID vaccine in pregnancy. Most of the expectant ladies who has misconceptions and were worried about birth defects and long-term effects on babies, the safety and prevention of COVID infection by the vaccine had information from the family. </p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Dr. Zahida Parveen brohi, Uzma Parveen, Aneela Sadaf, Roohi Nigar, Ifat Baloch A multidisciplinary approach to managing unusual complications following corrosive ingestion in a young adult: A case report 2023-10-19T17:12:27+05:00 Anny Ashiq Ali Kashif Khan Salma Rattani Dr Samar Fatima <p>This case report presents the clinical management of a 24-year-old female patient who was presented to the emergency room with a history of corrosive ingestion. The patient experienced a complex clinical course involving cardiogenic shock, myocarditis, high anion -gap metabolic acidosis, esophagitis, and pulmonary complications. The issue at hand could not have been caused by only corrosive ingestion; it looked like a distinct matter involved. This case highlights the challenges in diagnosing and managing such cases and the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to optimize patient outcomes.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Anny Ashiq Ali, Kashif Khan, Salma Rattani, Samar Fatima